When most people think of the ancient Romans, I suspect that one of the last things to come to mind is generosity – although the Romans were surely generous in “sharing” their culture with the entire Mediterranean basin! In this context, we might be surprised to find that LIBERALITAS (generous giving) was included among the public virtues modeled by Roman society as a whole over the course of it’s nearly 1500 year cultural span (not including the Byzantines…quite a different variety of Roman).
This time span is a concept that my students always struggle with…namely, the fact that it is difficult to make wide generalizations about the Romans because their culture, like all cultures, changes over time. I wrapped up the ROME film class last week and will read final research papers this week. Despite cautioning that they should be careful to include only info relating to the Late Republic, I’ve no doubt that I will read a good bit about Imperial Military tactics or the sexual mores of early Christian Rome. It’s all Rome right? Well, not exactly. What LIBERALITAS meant to Julius Caesar is not precisely the same as what it meant to Constantine 350 years later…there are subtleties that vary over time as the culture evolved. What does remain the same though is the primary definition of the term:
“Generosity, nobility, kindliness, magnanimity”
“Munificence, open-handedness, liberality”
which developed further to mean also,
“An instance of generosity, a gift, donation, contribution”
Interestingly (to me anyway 🙂 ) the majority of visual representations of LIBERALITAS come from the well into the Imperial Period of Rome.
The coin above dates to the Severan Dynasty (195-235 CE), specifically to the reign of the emperor Elagabalus (if you are looking for wild and woolly Imperial Roman hijinks, look no futher than Elagabalus) The coin sports a portrait of the emperor on the obverse and a depiction of the personification of Liberalitas on the reverse. The goddess is loaded up with all sorts of goodies to be distributed. In her right hand she holds a coin shaker, in her left, an overflowing cornucopia. I don’t see it in the descriptions of the coin, but it looks to me as if she has some variety of water fowl (looks goose-y to me) draped over her left arm as well. The inscription describes her as “Liberalitas of Augustus,” that is, the generosity of the emperor.
This seems to be a quite common coin reverse during the rule of a number emperors both before and after the Severan clan. The emperor Constantine takes his display of imperial LIBERALITAS up a notch on the triumphal arch that bears his name…
This panel, on the NW corner of the arch, shows Constantine bestowing his generosity on his subjects…well actually, it shows Marcus Aurelius doing this – the Arch of Constantine is a really quirky example of imperial thrift as Constantine pillaged and retooled the monuments of his predecessors to quickly and cheaply construct his own massive celebration of self. The panels depict scenes of the seated emperor passing out coins to his assembled subjects…Liberalitas Augustorum…
In this very cursory glance at imperial LIBERALITAS, it becomes pretty evident that such generosity might well be expected to have provided political returns for the munificent emperor. In general, it does seem that the Roman ideal of LIBERALITAS usually did come with some strings attached…quid pro quo you know…
I think that it’s safe to say that as it relates to Richard Armitage, LIBERALITAS is more like quid pro no quo…shall we say, LibeRAlitas? You know where I’m going now right? Doodledom of course!
Richard Armitage is asked and agrees to provide a doodle for the NF Network Celebrity Doodle auction, and then pledges to match the winning bid…
Bids on said doodle are vigorous from the start…
and finish at an impressive amount that elicits a generous response from the artist
LibeRAlitas indeed…and not just from the man himself but also from so many people in this fandom whose generosity is inspiring. It’s one of my very favorite things about Richard Armitage…that he seems to possess a great spirit of generosity, and that it attracts a collection of people who are incredibly generous themselves. You don’t have to take my word for it. If you look back through the annals of the fandom, you’ll find a wide variety of fundraising efforts spearheaded and supported by Armitage fans from all over the world. As I type there is fantastic auction (Here, Here and Here) and a special distribution of Amazon sales (Here) to raise funds for relief efforts in Nepal. Generous giving at work. I am proud to be among you!
LibeRAlitas for all!!